I watched your replay, so here's some advice.
First, I want to say you aren't terrible. You have a lot of improvement to make, but you also have some things that you are doing right. I've seen a lot worse.
I'll break this guide down into 3 categories: things you did right, major things you did wrong, minor things you did wrong.
Things you did right
1. Good pylon spread in your base. You kept an eye on all corners of your base so as to prevent schenanigans from you opponent. Keep doing this, it'll help you once you get to silver/gold/plat.
2. Decent army composition. It wasn't perfect, but zealots, stalkers, and colossi are a decent mix. More on this later.
3. You didn't get supply blocked. Even though it was mostly because you built a bunch of pylons at once, not getting supply blocked helps a LOT.
4. Good probe production at first. You were constantly building probes up until you had saturated you base. That was good, stopping was bad.
Major things you did wrong
1. Good probe production, but ONLY at first. After you saturated your first base, you stopped building probes constantly. Until you have 80-90 probes you should NEVER stop building them, at least in bronze league. Army units are the ones that get all the attention, but probes win you the game!
2. You didn't scout. This is probably the biggest issue in your entire game. The first time you even saw your opponent wasn't until about 20 1/2 minutes in. At 13:00, you had 22 stalkers and 6 zealots. Your opponent had 6 stalkers and 4 void rays. If you had attacked, you would have absolutely CRUSHED him. As in, you would have maybe lost 1 stalker. It wouldn't have even been close, even if you had to fight his photon cannons too. Had you been scouting, you would have seen that his army was much smaller than yours and you could have attacked.
3. You took way too long to expand. Typically, you want an expansion around 8:00-10:00 at the LATEST. I often take an expansion around 6:00 against another protoss player, and that's the latest for me. Against terran I take it around 4:45, and against zerg I take it around 3:45. The point is, you expanded way too late. Expanding late is fine (but not that late), but you should be attacking if you aren't expanding. If you want to expand around 8:00-10:00, you should combine it with an attack since you'll have a bigger army due to the late expansion.
4. You weren't spending your resources efficiently. I often saw you with 2000+ minerals in the bank, which does you no good at all. You should be spending your minerals constantly. If you can't spend them fast enough, make more gateways/robos/stargates. This goes hand in hand with expanding and making probes. Collecting resources efficiently does you no good if you don't spend them!
Minor things you did wrong
1. You had a very rough start to the game. You didn't begin making your first probe until about 30 seconds in. It's really important to get that probe started ASAP, and also to get your guys mining. It seems minor, but it slows you down more than you would think.
2. When you took your expansion, you had a bunch of guys at your main, and none at your expansion. It's more efficient to transfer half your guys to the expansion when it finishes, then keep building probes from both nexuses.
3. Army composition. Like I said earlier, it was decent, but it could have been better. I would have liked to see more zealots, more colossi, and fewer stalkers. Now, you might say "Stalkers were my only anti air, and he went air and I lost!!!", but that's not the real issue. The real issue is that you let him mass air without knowing about it. Had you been scouting, he would have never gotten there in the first place. If you opponent does somehow mass void rays, it can be difficult to deal with, but archons do nicely against it.
4. Map control. You didn't take the xel'naga tower, which could have helped. You also weren't keeping an eye on the expansions to know when he expanded.
5. At one point I saw you build an assimilator, then have three probes waiting next to it the entire time it built so they were ready when it finished. Don't do that.
6. Upgrades. If this had been against a terran or zerg player, I probably would have put this in the major issues section. Even so, upgrades are really important, especially to a large army. In a game that has gone on for half an hour, you really should have 3/3/3 upgrades by the end. At the end, you didn't have a single upgrade, and you even built a forge and everything. You opponent had 2/2/2 upgrades, and he steamrolled you.
Like I said before, you aren't terrible, and the fact you want to improve helps a lot. I know this is a lot to think about, so just focus on scouting and reacting to what you see properly, and spending resources for now, while keeping the other issues in mind. Good luck!