Also refer to Critrocket's own personal guide which includes all of this information in more detail and uses imagery:
3. Stat Priorities/Gear
7. Single Target Rotation
8. AoE Rotation
For frost, there is really only one main way to spec your tree, but there are a few optional talents that you can put points into based on your situation/preference
Reactive Barrier - Although having only 1/2 into this talent means that there's a 50% chance it will do nothing, once you get past 50% the chance dramatically rises to points where it's almost 100%. Strongly Suggested
Icy Shards - Due to the nature of the application involving the blizzard slow (there is a delay on the slow until it's applied) it is not as good as it seems. But, i've learned recently that having 1/2 in this means that Blizzard will proc BF and FoF, which makes this talent amazingly better. It almost guarantees max procs when casted upon a lot of targets. Strongly Suggested. As for the 2/2, the slow in 1/2 is utterly worthless, but the 40% in 2/2 is pretty awesome.
Enduring Winter - Due to the amount of frostbolt's you cast within the duration of Replenishment on average, only the 1 point is needed. The amount of uptime you get with Molten Armor from the extra 7% reduction is extremely negligible. The main reason you will see this in a lot of frost PvE builds is simply a lack of good talents to go to.
Important: With the higher crit values, there are now two ways frost mages are dealing with mana. The first option is to achieve soft cap (roughly 22% including flask/feast/stat buff/5% buff/5% debuff) and run mage armor full-time. I highly recommend this option as it allows you to completely forget your mana, which in turn allows you to perform your rotation better and increase your raid awareness.
The other option is to achieve 30% crit fully raid buffed (whatever that may entitle. But as a frost mage in a PvE setting, having full crit bonuses is virtually imperative.) and run molten armor. Doing this requires the use of evocation, mana gems, and for most fights definitely armor switching (going to mage armor at like 25-30% mana and switching back to molten at the appropriate time)
Starting off as a frost mage, these are the glyphs i would recommend:
Glyph of Frostfire ( The 15% damage buff is huge considering you will mainly crit with it - if you put up permafrost and have this glyph, it still will not slow)
Glyph of Frostbolt
Glyph of Deep Freeze
Glyph of Blink
Glyph of Evocation (A self heal, must have)
Glyph of Ice Barrier (Very helpful to your healers in various fights)
Glyph of Conjuring
Optional (I personally like Glyph of Armors)
Optional (I personally like Glyph of Slow Fall)
3. Stat Priorities/Gear
As with all casters, your main and most important stat will always be Intellect. It directly gives you spellpower, mana, and critical strike chance.
Although SimC and things like it give different results depending on gear, these are the normal stat priorities for frost:
Hit to cap (17%, or 16% for draenei)
Crit until soft cap (33%)
Crit after soft cap
Remember that these shift (mainly haste/mastery)