The above is a long list so I'll break out exactly where you'd use some of these abilities (the most common ones):
Black Out Kick - Grants shuffle. Shuffle only lasts 6 sec, but it does stack. So you will end up spamming BOK a lot. Part of the challenge of monk tanking is balancing the time remaining on shuffle, with your resources, to determine when you can use your other tools. You never, ever want to let shuffle drop, as long as you are taking physical damage. You WILL die if that happens. (Unless its 5-mans, and you can skip it in some cases then.)
Breath of Fire - Useful to AOE interrupt casters in 5-mans.
Fortifying Brew - Biggest oh-crap button we have; best used against heavy physical damage to take advantage of the additional 20% stagger.
Expel Harm - Used on CD, as long as you have taken some damage.
Guard - Best used to counter non-physical damage, that cannot be negated through Shuffle: Magic, bleeds, etc. Also increases the amount of self-healing you do while guard is active. Think of this as the monk version of Shield Barrier. Shuffle is their equivalent to Shield Block. Also increases the self healing we do while it is active, so best used when you are not at full health.
Elusive Brew - You will avoid most physical attacks while this ability is active. However, you only gain elusive brew stacks through auto-attack critical hits. This is important because one of our key abilities -- spinning crane kick -- prevents you from making auto-attacks. So if you spam SCK you can't generate Elusive Brew stacks. In 5-mans, you can get away with it. In raids, you might not. Something you have to weigh on a per encounter basis.
Gift of the Ox - These pile up on either side of you over the course of a fight. Strafe right or left to pick them up for a quick emergency heals.
Healing Sphere - Useful between pulls to top off your health. Generally not useful during combat unless you are trying to heal someone else (e.g. healer). You can become energy starved using these, so it is not something you will use if you need to keep shuffle up.
Black Ox Statue - Arguably one of the best abilities in the our arsenal. This statue creates bubbles on the group/raid based on how much damage you do. Does not affect you, but can help the healers a great deal (think of it as our Battle Healer glyph).
Purifying Brew - Used to clear stagger damage. Generally only done when you are taking over 60% of your health in damage. Not worth purifying at lower intervals unless your healer is struggling.
Chi Wave - Useful in 5-man and 10-man raids any time you have extra chi to generate some extra healing on yourself or those around you.
Chi Burst - Useful in 25-man raids for raid healing.
Leg Sweep - Useful in 5-mans or trash packs to interrupt spells or to give you some breathing room while you build up chi for shuffle. Best example I can give on when I like to use this is Niuzao Temple, on the Amber Shapers. They will stun you within the first few seconds of a fight. Can use this to prevent that.
Dampen Harm - Preferred tanking talent for raids. Good for softening big hits in a fairly large window. Diffuse Magic is only better for encounters where you have extremely high magic damage, in a short window.
So, in short, we have a crap ton of CDs. That is sort of the challenge of the monk. Learning them all, and figuring out where to use them.